Since the deep impact of the international financial crisis was yet to end as at the end of the review period, arrivals in China recorded a decline of 3% in 2013 in terms of the number of inbound trips. The financial crisis resulted in weaker job security in Western countries, which led to tighter budgets for the residents of those countries. Neighbouring countries, such as India and Thailand, relaxed their visa policies and this led to even-greater competition and posed a strong threat to China's tourism industry, as Western visitors were sometimes choosing those countries where the prices of commodities were much lower than in China. Moreover, the serious air pollution in China, especially in major cities such as Beijing and Shanghai, also deterred inbound visitors. In addition, impacted by the tense situation between China and Japan, arrivals from Japan fell sharply by 15% in 2013.