Allied Market Research

Development of Fermentation Products and Downstream Processing

Fermentation is a metabolic process that involves conversion of sugar, cellulosic material, and starch into food, feed, fuel, and other industrial products. This conversion uses microorganisms or enzymes as raw materials and is carried out in bioreactors or fermenters. After this process, subsequent downstream processing is required to purify and isolate the target product.


Portland, OR -- (SBWIRE) -- 02/14/2018 -- Fermentation products are necessary ingredients utilized in the production of bio-based products. Stringent government regulations imposed by key regulatory authorities in developed economies are anticipated to increase the demand for fermentation products during forecast period. These products assists in food preservation and extend shelf life of products in the food & beverage industry. Continuous R&D activities and acquisitions & mergers have been adopted by fermentation product manufacturers to expand their existing product portfolio and increase their market share.

Increase in demand for antibiotics & steroids and rise in use of fermentation products as raw material in textile, leather, plastic, chemical, and rubber industries further supplement market growth. North America is the leading region, due to increase in popularity of food and pharmaceutical products produced by use of fermentation products.

The Fermentation Products Market was valued at $149,469 million in 2016, and is expected to reach $205,465 million by 2023, registering a CAGR of 4.7% from 2017 to 2023.

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Fermentation processes are designed to produce useful products and are carried out on an industrial scale, thus, benefitting billions of people worldwide. Not only does it provide employment to people, but also a large number of beneficial products which were earlier unavailable in such quantities to public. Industrial fermentation is defined as the "intentional use of microorganisms, such as bacteria and fungi for profitable bulk production of metabolites useful to humans." A vast variety of fermented products are used as food as well as other general need items. Using fermentations, certain commodity chemicals, such as acetic acid, citric acid, and ethanol are manufactured. Almost all of the commercially produced enzymes, like lipase, invertase and rennet are produced through fermentation using genetically modified microbes. In some cases, biomass production is the sole objective of fermentation. An example of this is the commercial production of baker's yeast and lactic acid bacteria starter cultures for cheese making. A large number of important therapeutic drugs like insulin, growth hormone, interferons etc. are now being commercially produced using transgenic microorganisms on an industrial scale at an affordable cost. A number of these are life-saving drugs too.

The innumerable products synthesized using industrial fermentations can?t directly be consumed/used, rather they need to be harvested, purified, packaged and tested before they could be put to their actual use. Downstream processing refers to "the recovery and purification of biosynthetic products, particularly pharmaceuticals, from natural sources such as animal or plant tissue or the spent fermentation broth, including the recycling of salvageable components and the proper treatment and disposal of waste." It is an important

step in the production of pharmaceuticals like the following:-

1. Antibiotics such as penicillin
2. Hormones such as insulin and human growth hormone
3. Antibodies such as infliximab and rituximab
4. Vaccines
5. Antibodies and enzymes used for diagnostic purposes
6. Industrial enzymes
7. Natural fragrance and flavor compounds

Downstream processing is generally considered to be a specialized field in biochemical/chemical engineering. It encompasses harvesting, purification and packaging of a specific industrial product synthesized in marketable quantities. Analytical bioseparation refers to the separation or purification of biological products at different scales of operation, done at analytical scale, the purpose of which is to maintain the desired quality of the product.

Downstream processing involves four important steps that result in the following progressive improvements in purity and concentration of the desired product:-

1. Removal of insoluble: This step involves the harvest of the product in the form of solute in a particle-free supernatant. An example of this is the separation of cells, cell debris or any other particulate matter from the spent fermentation broth containing an antibiotic. This can be achieved by various methods like filtration, centrifugation, sedimentation, flocculation, electro-precipitation, precipitation, and gravity settling. Other methods such as grinding, homogenization, or leaching, may be required for recovering products from solid sources like plant and animal tissues.

2. Product isolation: This step involves the removal of those components whose properties differ significantly from that of the desired product. For maximum products, the presence of water in them is the main impurity, and consequently, product isolation essentially involves drying and concentrating the product. This step involves processes such as solvent extraction, adsorption, ultrafiltration, and precipitation.

3. Product purification: This step is performed for separating those contaminants whose physical and chemical properties closely resemble those of the product. Since this is rather difficult to carry out, the steps involved at this stage may be expensive, and may require sensitive and sophisticated apparatus. This stage alone may use up a significant fraction of the entire downstream processing expenditure. Examples of some of the methods used in this step are affinity chromatography, size exclusion chromatography, reversed phase chromatography, crystallization and fractional precipitation, all of which are very specific techniques.

4. Product polishing: This is the last step that involves final processing steps that end up with a stable, functional, easily transportable and convenient product. This step involves processes like crystallization, desiccation, lyophilization and spray drying. Depending on the type of product and its application, polishing might even include product sterilization and removal/deactivation of trace contaminants that may compromise product safety. It might virus removal too.

The fermentation products market is segmented based on type, feedstock, process, end-user industry, and geography. On the basis of type, it is divided into alcohols, amino acids, organic acids, biogas, polymers, vitamins, antibiotics, and industrial enzymes. According to feedstock, it is categorized into corn, rice, wheat, sugar cane, cassava, barley, potatoes, sorghum, sugar beet, other coarse grains, and other roots & tubers. Other coarse grains comprise oats, millet, triticale, buckwheat, rye, canary seed, fonio, and quinoa, while other roots & tubers include yams, sweet potatoes, yautia, and taro. Based on process, the market is classified into batch fermentation, continuous fermentation, and others (aerobic fermentation and anaerobic fermentation). According to end-user industry, it is divided into food & beverages; pharmaceutical; agriculture; personal care; animal feed; textile & leather; and others (paper, bioremediation, environment, and biochemistry). Geographically, the market is analyzed across North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, and LAMEA.

Key leading players operating in this market include AB Enzymes GmbH, Ajinomoto Company Incorporation, Amano Enzyme Inc., BASF SE, Chr. Hansen A/S, Du Pont Danisco A/S, Evonik Industries AG, Lonza Group Ltd., Novozymes A/S, and The Dow Chemical Company.

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The other key market players in the value chain include Koninklijke DSM N.V., Archer Daniels Midland Company, Cargill Inc., Alcogroup S.A., Syngar Technologies Inc., Dhler Group, CBH Qingdao Co., Ltd., and Hebei Kangdali Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd.