Although current domestic production of oil and gas is negligible, with imports meeting around 98% of current demand, we are witnessing a gradual but notable uptick in investment targeting Spain's upstream. The acceleration of onshore and offshore activity could cut Spain's hefty import bill, but there are political and regulatory risks that hold sizable downs risks to both conventional and unconventional efforts. However , the environment ministry has recently allowed deepwater drilling off the Canary Islands , and the Supreme Court has granted Repsol the authoris ation to start exploration after the permit had been legally challenged by local authorities. Also, in November 201 3 the central government legalis ed the process of hydraulic fracturing. However, while we see brightening prospects for onshore unconventionals, this upside is unlikely to significantly alter production for within our forecast period: significant technical, environmental and political obstacles preclude us from including significant shale gas production within our forecast period.